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1. Cuttack district – Cuttack district is one of the 30 districts of Odisha state in East India. Its administrative headquarters are located in the city of Cuttack, as of 2011, it is the second most populous district of Odisha, after Ganjam. The district covers an area of 3932 km² and it has a population of 2,624,470. This district was subdivided into 15 tehsils and 15 Revenue Blocks, the tehsils are Banki, Cuttack, Niali, Salepur, Choudwar, Mahanga, Kishannagar, Athagad, Baramba, Narasinghpur, Tigiria, Baranga, Kantapada, Nischintakoili and Damapada. The last four were created in 2008, there are religious establishments often built within close proximity of each other in Cuttack. Katak Chandi Temple, The temple of goddess Katak Chandi is probably the most famous religious establishment of city, with Katak Chandi being worshiped as the main goddess, the temple has smaller temples of other Gods and goddesses in its small compound. Not far away is the Gada Chandi temple which is inside the Barabati Fort, there is a temple of Lord Shiva on the banks of Mahanadi River, and near the fort, known as Gada Gadia temple. Paramahansa Nath Temple, Cuttack also hosts the Paramahansa Nath temple, Bhattarika Temple, Dhabaleswar temple, Charchika Temple, Panchamukhi Hanuman temple, the Barabati fort houses the Gada Chandi temple which is one of the oldest temples in Cuttack. The Dhabaleswar temple is located on an island in the river Mahanadi and is connected to the mainland by a hanging bridge. The pillar less hanging bridge is unique of its kind in India, Daatan Sahib Gurdwara, A holy historical Sikh shrine, the Gurdwara Daatan Sahib is where the first Sikh Guru, Shree Guru Nanak Dev, halted on his way to Puri. It is believed that a tree planted by him after using it as a tooth cleaner still flourishes here. Cuttack houses several churches that include holy Rosary church, Oriya Baptist church, Cuttack town enjoyed for a pretty long time the honour of being the seat of political authority of the Muslims in Odisha. During this period numerous Muslim monuments were built in Cuttack and it has various mosques, like Qadam-E-Rasool, Juma Masjid, etc. Jama Masjid, The word Jama means big, and this is the oldest, biggest masjid of Cuttack and it was built during the Mughal era. It possesses several rooms for visitors and students, earlier there used to be a Madrasa in this mosque. However, since last 10 years, the Madrasa is shifted out, the neighbourhoods surrounding the Juma Masjid are inhabited both by Hindus and Muslims. Cuttack celebrates festivals from all religions with much fanfare and devotion, dusshera, the festival of goddess Durga, is very popular in Cuttack. Kali puja, Just after Durga puja gets over, Cuttackis gear up with all their vigour to celebrate Kali puja

2. Cuttack – Cuttack/ˈkʌtək/ is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. It is also the headquarters of the Cuttack district, the name of the city is an anglicised form of Katak which literally means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city initially developed. Cuttack is also known as the Millennium City as well as the Silver City due to its history of 1000 years and it is also considered as the judicial capital of Odisha as the Odisha High Court is located here. It is also the capital of Odisha which hosts a large number of trading and business houses in. The old and the most important part of the city is centred on a spit of land between the Kathajodi River and the Mahanadi River, bounded on the southeast by Old Jagannath Road, the city, being a part of the Cuttack Municipal Corporation consisting of 59 wards. Cuttack stretches from Phulnakhara across the Kathajodi in the south to Choudwar in north across the Birupa River, while in the east it begins at Kandarpur, four rivers including Mahanadi and its distributaries Kathajodi, Kuakhai, Birupa run through the city. Further Kathajodi is distributed into Devi and Biluakhai which often makes the area look like fibrous roots. Cuttack and Bhubaneswar are often referred to as the Twin-Cities of Odisha, the metropolitan area formed by the two cities has a population of 1.68 million in 2014. Cuttack is categorised as a Tier-II city as per the ranking system used by Government of India, the name Cuttack is derived from Sanskrit meaning military establishment or a cantonment. The city was known as Bidanasi Katak during the days when Barabati Fort was in existence, Bidanasi is now one of the localities of the city. The two cities are referred to as the Twin Cities. Cuttack is famous for its silver filigree works, and woven textiles. It is also famous for its Dussehra celebrations, the earliest written history of Cuttack may go back to the Keshari dynasty. As stated by the distinguished historian Andrew Stirling, present-day Cuttack was established as a military cantonment by king Nrupa Keshari of Keshari dynasty in 989 CE, Stirling based his opinion on the Madala Panji, a chronicle of the Jagannath temple of Puri. The reign of Maharaja Markata Keshari was distinguished for the stone embank built to protect the new capital from flood in 1002 CE, historical and archaeological evidence suggests Cuttack becoming capital of a kingdom founded by Raja Anangabhimadeva III of Ganga dynasty in 1211 CE. After the end of Ganga rule, Odisha passed to the hands of the Suryavamsi Gajapati dynasty under whom Cuttack continued to be the capital of Odisha. After the death of Raja Mukunda deva, the last Hindu king of Orissa, Cuttack first came under Muslim rule and later under Mughals, who made Cuttack the seat of the new Orissa Subah under Shah Jahan. By 1750, Cuttack came under Maratha rule and it grew fast as a centre being the convenient point of contact between the Marathas of Nagpur and the English merchants of Bengal

3. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

4. Madhusudan Das – Utkal Gourab Madhusudan Das was the first graduate and advocate of Odisha. He was born on 28 April 1848 in a village called Satyabhamapur,20 kilometres from Cuttack and he is known as Kulabruddha which means Grand Old Man and Utkal Gourab, which means Pride of Utkal, and was referred to as a poet and freedom fighter. He was born to a Zamindari family from father Choudhury Raghunath Das and they had initially named him Gobindaballabh. Later they changed his name to Madhusudan and he had two elder sisters and a younger brother named Gopalballabh. Gopalballabh was the Magistrate at Bihar Province and the father of Ramadevi Choudhury, Madhusudan had adopted two Bengali girls, Sailabala Das and Sudhansubala Hazra. Sailabala was an educationist who had trained from England and in name the famous Shailabala Womens College of Cuttack was founded. Shailabala was a Bengali, and her parents had left her in the care of Madhusudan Das, Sudhansubala Hazra was also a Bengali and she was the 1st female lawyer of British India. Madhu babu was the teacher of Ashutosh Mukherjee, the former Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University in Calcutta and Janakinath Bose. After his early education, he moved to Cuttack High School which offered English education, in 1864, he passed the entrance examination and went to Calcutta University. In spite of uttermost challenging conditions he lived in Calcutta for almost fifteen years, in 1870, he became the first Odia to complete his B. A. He continued his studies there to complete his M. A. in 1873 and B. L. degree in 1878, after returning to Odisha from Calcutta in 1881, he started his legal practice. His insight knowledge on this field helped him to earn sufficiently and he was a source of inspiration for the lawyers in Odisha and in India. His birth anniversary is observed to be a Lawyers Day in the State, known as Madhu Babu by the common people, he worked for the political, social and economical upliftment of the people of Odisha and served his motherland as a lawyer, social reformer and patriot. He founded Utkal Sammilani which brought a revolution in the social and industrial development of Odisha, by his long political fight he united Odisha & modern Odisha took birth on 1 April 1936. This day is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa and he has been admired as a legislator and journalist. He was the first Odia to become a member of both the council and the Central Legislative Assembly of India. He was the first Indian Minister and he was also the first Odia to sail overseas. He founded the Utkal Tannery in 1905, a factory producing shoes, in 1897 he founded the Orissa Art Ware Works

5. Mahatma Gandhi – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights, the honorific Mahatma —applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu and Gandhiji and he is unofficially called the Father of the Nation. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. Gandhi attempted to practise nonviolence and truth in all situations, and he lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest. Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in the Punjab, eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to promote religious harmony, the last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78, also had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating, among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Mahatma Gandhis birthday,2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday and his father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan of Porbandar state. The Gandhi family originated from the village of Kutiana in what was then Junagadh State, in the late 17th or early 18th century, one Lalji Gandhi moved to Porbandar and entered the service of its ruler, the Rana. In 1831, Rana Khimojiraji died suddenly and was succeeded by his 12-year-old only son, as a result, Rana Khimojirajjis widow, Rani Rupaliba, became regent for her son. She soon fell out with Uttamchand and forced him to return to his village in Junagadh. While in Junagadh, Uttamchand appeared before its Nawab and saluted him with his hand instead of his right. In 1841, Vikmatji assumed the throne and reinstated Uttamchand as his diwan, in 1847, Rana Vikmatji appointed Uttamchands son, Karamchand, as diwan after disagreeing with Uttamchand over the states maintenance of a British garrison. Although he only had an education and had previously been a clerk in the state administration

6. Jayaprakash Narayan – His biography, Jayaprakash, was written by his nationalist friend and an eminent writer of Hindi literature, Ramavriksha Benipuri. In 1999, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian award. Other awards include the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965, the Patna airport is also named after him. The largest hospital run by the Delhi government and the hospital of the famous Maulana Azad Medical College. It was formerly called Irwin hospital, there is also a park in his name, situated on Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, in New Delhi, just opposite to Maulana Azad Medical College. On August 1,2015, the Chhapra-Delhi-Chhapra Weekly Express was renamed as Loknayak Express in his honour, jayprakash Narayan was born on 11 October 1902 in the village of Sitabdiara in Saran district of Bihar, India. He came from a kayastha family and he was the fourth child of Harsu Dayal and Phul Rani Devi. His father Harsu Dayal was an official in the Canal Department of the State government and was often touring the region. When Narayan was 9 years old, he left his village to enroll in 7th class of the school at Patna. Jayaprakash also read the Bhagwad Gita and his essay, The present state of Hindi in Bihar won a best essay award. He excelled in school and by 1918 completed school and undertook the State Public Matriculation Examination and won a District merit scholarship to Patna college, in October 1920, Narayan was married to Braj Kishore Prasads daughter Prabhavati Devi, a freedom fighter in her own right. At the time of marriage, Jayaprakash was 18 years and Prabhavati was 14 years of age, which was a normal age for marriage in that period. After their wedding, since Narayan was working in Patna and it was difficult for his wife to stay with him, on the invitation of Gandhi, Prabhavati became an inmate at the Ashram of Gandhi. Jayaprakash, along with friends, went to listen to Maulana Abul Kalam Azad speak about the Non-co-operation movement launched by Gandhi against the passing of the Rowlatt Act of 1919. The Maulana was a brilliant orator and his call to give up English education was like leaves before a storm, Jayaprakash was swept away and that brief experience of soaring up with the winds of a great idea left imprints on his inner being”. Jayaprakash took the Maulana’s words to heart and left Patna College with just 20 days remaining for his examinations, Jayaprakash joined the Bihar Vidyapeeth, a college founded by Dr. Rajendra Prasad and became among the first students of Gandhian Dr. Anugraha Narayan Sinha. After exhausting the courses at the Vidyapeeth, Jayaprakash decided to continue studies in the United States, at age 20, Jayaprakash sailed aboard the cargo ship Janus while Prabhavati remained at Sabarmati. Jayaprakash reached California on 8 October 1922 and was admitted to Berkeley in January 1923, all these jobs gave Jayaprakash an insight into the difficulties of the working class

7. Vinoba Bhave – Vinayak Narahari Vinoba Bhave was an Indian advocate of nonviolence and human rights. Often called Acharya, he is best known for the Bhoodan Movement and he is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mohandas Gandhi. He was the 1st person to be selected as a Satyagrahi followed by J. L Nehru in Individual Satyagraha by Mahatma Gandhi. Vinoba was born into a pious Chitpavan Brahmin family on 11 September 1895 in a village called Gagode in Kolaba now in Pen. Vinayaka was the eldest son of Narahari Shambhu Rao and Rukmini Devi, the couple had five children – four sons and one daughter, named Vinayaka, Balakrishna, Shivaji and Dattatreya. His father, Narahari Shambhu Rao was a weaver with a rationalist modern outlook. Vinayaka was brought up by his grandfather, Shamburao Bhave and was influenced by his mother Rukmini Devi. Vinayak was highly inspired after reading the Bhagavad Gita, at a young age. A report in the newspapers about Gandhis speech at the newly founded Benaras Hindu University attracted Vinobas attention, in 1916, on his way to Mumbai to appear for the intermediate examination, Vinoba Bhave put his school and college certificates into a fire. Vinoba took the decision after reading the piece of writing in the written by Mahatma Gandhi. He wrote a letter to Gandhi and after an exchange of letters, Vinoba met Gandhi on 7 June 1916 and subsequently abandoned his studies. Vinoba participated with keen interest in the activities at Gandhis ashram and his involvement with Gandhis constructive programmes related to Khadi, village industries, new education, sanitation and hygiene also kept on increasing. Vinoba went to Wardha on 8 April 1921 to take charge of the Ashram as desired by Gandhi, in 1923, he brought out Maharashtra Dharma, a Marathi monthly which had his essays on the Upanishads. Later on, this became a weekly and continued for three years. In 1925, he was sent by Gandhi to Vaikom, Kerala to supervise the entry of the Harijans to the temple, Vinoba was arrested several times during the 1920s and 1930s and served a five-year jail sentence in the 1940s for leading non-violent resistance to British rule. The jails for Vinoba had become the places of reading and writing and he wrote Ishavasyavritti and Sthitaprajna Darshan in jail. He also learnt four South Indian languages and created the script of Lok Nagari at Vellore jail, in the jails, he gave a series of talks on Bhagavad Gita in Marathi, to his fellow prisoners. Bhave participated in the civil disobedience periodically conducted against the British

8. Indian National Congress

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