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Light Chain Essay

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5. Kyle RA, Therneau TM, Rajkumar SV, et al. A long-term study of prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. N Engl J Med. 2002;346: 564-569. [PubMed]

6. Kyle RA, Therneau TM, Rajkumar SV, Larson DR, Plevak MF, Melton LJ 3rd. Long-term follow-up of 241 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: the original Mayo Clinic series 25 years later [see comment]. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79: 859-866. [PubMed]

7. Kyle RA. “Benign” monoclonal gammopathy—after 20 to 35 years of follow-up. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993;68: 26-36. [PubMed]

8. Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Multiple Myeloma. N Engl J Med 2004;351: 1860-1873. [PubMed]

9. Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Witzig TE, et al. Review of 1,027 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2003;78: 21-33. [PubMed]

10. Rajkumar SV, Gertz MA, Kyle RA, Greipp PR. Current therapy for multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002;77: 813-822. [PubMed]

11. Cesana C, Klersy C, Barbarano L, et al. Prognostic factors for malignant transformation in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20: 1625-1634. [PubMed]

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16. Abraham RS, Clark RJ, Bryant SC, et al. Correlation of serum immunoglobulin free light chain quantification with urinary Bence Jones protein in light chain myeloma. Clin Chem. 2002;48: 655-657. [PubMed]

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21. Kyle RA. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: natural history in 241 cases. Am J Med. 1978;64: 814-826. [PubMed]

22. Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA, Therneau TM, et al. Presence of monoclonal free light chains in the serum predicts risk of progression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Br J Haematol. 2004;127: 308-310. [PubMed]

23. Kyle RA, Beard CM, O'Fallon WM, Kurland LT. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Olmsted County, Minnesota: 1978 through 1990, with a review of the trend since 1945. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12: 1577-1583. [PubMed]

24. Szczepanski T, van `t Veer MB, Wolvers-Tettero IL, Langerak AW, van Dongen JJ. Molecular features responsible for the absence of immunoglobulin heavy chain protein synthesis in an IgH(-) subgroup of multiple myeloma. Blood. 2000;96: 1087-1093. [PubMed]

25. Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA. Conventional therapy and approach to management. Best Pract Res Cl Ha. In press.

Light, Darkness, and the Great Chain of Being Depicted in Shakespeare's Macbeth

701 Words3 Pages

Macbeth Essay William Shakespeare's Macbeth is an ominous tale that illustrates the danger in violating the Great Chain of Being, the hierarchy of things in God's ordered universe. The Chain ranked all of creation and human society as well. It ranked kings above nobles and nobles above the poor. When Macbeth murdered King Duncan and assumed the throne, the Chain was violated and chaos resulted. The atmosphere of the play symbolized this resulting turmoil. Specifically, light and darkness were used to exemplify the unnatural chaos and ominous tone of the work. The role of light and the role of darkness relates to the chaos resulting from the violation of the Great Chain of Being. The very first time light/darkness was seen was in Act…show more content…

At the announcement of his successor, his son, King Duncan said, "Which honor must not unaccompanied invest him [The Prince of Cumberland, King Duncan's son and successor to the throne] only, but signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine / on all deservers". (I.4.27)King Duncan pledged his throne to his son as would be compatible with the Great Chain of Being. The light that was mentioned suggests that all was right with the world, the Great Chain of Being was in proper order. The idea that light signifies the natural order of things is enforced when the nobleman Ross says, "And yet dark night strangles the traveling lamp [the sun]". (II.4.73)The sun is the symbol of the Great Chain of Being and God's order in harmony because it is the source of all natural light. Macbeth's act of regicide disturbed the natural order of things and so subdued the sun. In Macbeth, light is a symbol of harmony and order, but darkness is just the opposite. Darkness is the chaos and evil that results from a broken Great Chain of Being.
Macbeth sent Scotland into turmoil and dark night when he murdered King Duncan. In response to the announcement of the Prince of Cumberland as the successor to the throne of Scotland, Macbeth said, "... Stars, hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires [to murder both King Duncan and the Prince of Cumberland]". (I.4.29)His murderous desires were evil and therefore sought to hide from the

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